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2015成考专升本英语写作要点汇总三

时间:2017-10-30 10:25来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
五、如何写正文--段落中的主题句 主题句(topic sentence)在段落中的位置和表示法 1. 主题句写在段落的开端,后面的支持句为主题句提供论证或细节,初学者以使用此法为宜。如: Americ

五、如何写正文--段落中的主题句

  主题句(topic sentence)在段落中的位置和表示法

  1. 主题句写在段落的开端,后面的支持句为主题句提供论证或细节,初学者以使用此法为宜。如:

  Americans make no distinction in greeting friends, acquaintances, elders, or superiors. When Americans see someone they know only by sight, they are likely to say "Hi" in all cases. This does not mean that they have no more regard for friends than for casual acquaintances. It only means that "Hi" serves as greeting for both.

  superior 上级,长者

  2. 主题句写在段落末了,前面都是提供细节的支持句,内容逐渐收拢,最后用一句总结的主题句加以概括。

  Americans might be embarrassed because their Japanese friends are so formal with them. Japanese might feel insulted because American acquaintances greet them casually. Still, the forms of greeting in both countries only show respect for other. It just happens that Americans and Japanese have a different way of looking at human relationships and thus have a different way of showing respect.

  3. 主题句写在段落的开端和写在末了。主题句先在段首出现,在段末又重复一遍,

  这种在首尾两处出现主题句的写法,具有强调或突出中心思想的作用。如:

  Good manners are important in all countries, but ways of expressing good manners are different from country to country. Americans eat with knives and forks; Japanese eat with chopsticks. Americans say "Hi" when they meet; Japanese bow. Many American men open doors for women; Japanese men do not.

  be different form 和……是不同的

  bow [ bau ]n.弓, 乐弓, 弓形, 鞠躬, 船首v.鞠躬, 弯腰

  On the surface, it appears that good manners in America are not good manners in Japan, and in a way this is true. But in any country, the only manners that are important are those involving one person's behavior toward another person. In all countries it is good manners to behave considerately toward others and bad manners not to. It is only the way of behaving politely that differs from country to country.

  in a way=in one way=in some ways 在某种程度上

  eg. The changes are an improvement in one way.

  Good manners are important in all countries, but ways of expressing good manners are different from country to country.

  It is only the way of behaving politely that differs from country to country.

  4. 主题句写在段落中间或其它地方。此时,要根据上下文的意思才能确定该段落中体现中心思想的句子。如:

  Californians and New Englanders are both American. They speak the same language and abide by the same federal laws. But they are very different in their ways of life. Mobility both physical and psychological has made a great impression on the culture of Californians; lack of mobility is the mark of the customs and morality of New Englanders.

  abide by sth. 遵守某事物,忠于某事物

  Abide( abided, abided)

  1) 用于否定句或疑问句中与can, could 连用;容忍、忍受、忍耐

  eg. I can't abide that man. 我对那个人忍无可忍。

  How could you abide such conditions? 这种环境你怎么受得了呢?

  2) abide by sth. 遵守某事物,忠于某事物

  abide by an agreement 履行协议

  3) (abode, abode) 逗留,延续,居留

  abide at a place 住在某地;abide with sb. 和某人同住。

  mobility 流动性

  make an impression on sth.(sb.) 给某人很深的印象

  5. 有时,主题句没有明显地表示出来,而用一种含蓄的方法加以表示。这时需要读者对整段意思加以领会,然后自己归纳出一句能体现全段中心思想的主题句来。

  如:

  First you must wait for a sunny day. Remember that the rays of the sun are most direct between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. This is the time when you will tan the quickest. At the right time and on the right day, pick an open spot outdoors and lay out a large towel or beach mat. You want to bring along several things: suntan oil, a portable radio, a book or magazine, sunglasses, a pillow. It is a good idea not to stay in the sun too long at first.

  Begin with a half hour, and then gradually increase the time you spend in the sun. Certain parts of your body will burn more quickly than others. These include the backs of your knees, the insides of your elbows, your shoulders, and your nose. Be sure to cover these spots with suntan oil when you first go outside. Cover them again with oil after you have been out in the sun for a while.

  (可能的含蓄主题句:Taking a sunbath calls for careful planning. 或It calls for careful planning to take a sunbath.)

写好主题句的三条原则

  1. 要能说明段落中心思想的内容。

  2. 要有能体现中心思想的关键词。

  3. 尽量使用简洁明了的句子。

  句1:In the United States, the system of forced labor, which was known as slavery lasted almost 250 years.

  句2:In the United States, the system of forced labor lasted almost 250 years.

  句3:Slavery lasted almost 250 years in the United States.

  句4:Pride and Prejudice was a book which in my opinion I enjoyed reading very much. (复杂又冗长)

  句5:I enjoyed reading Pride and Prejudice very much. (直接又清晰)

  enjoy doing sth. 喜欢做某事

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